Contenu du sommaire : Le Politique, la politique

Revue Revue française d'études américaines Mir@bel
Numéro no 87, janvier 2001
Titre du numéro Le Politique, la politique
Texte intégral en ligne Accessible sur l'internet
  • Introduction - Hubert Perrier p. 3-6 accès libre
  • PUBLIUS et la nature humaine - Jean-Marie Ruiz p. 7-16 accès libre avec résumé en anglais
    Contrary to most modern political writings, the celebrated Federalist Papers, most of which were written by Alexander Hamilton and James Madison under the pseudonym of Publius, is based on an explicit vision of human nature. This paper aims at showing that such a vision—which legitimated self-interest and rejected the traditional republican emphasis on virtue—belies the influence of the Scottish Enlightenment and illustrates the radical transformation of political theory in America following the Revolution.
  • Waldo Frank et Europe : un Américain et l'Europe - Anne Ollivier-Mellios p. 17-37 accès libre avec résumé en anglais
    Historians have often argued that American intellectuals in the 1920s were not interested in politics and that it was not until the Great Depression and the rise of Stalinism that they became politically committed. This article focuses on Waldo Frank, an intellectual who, like John Dos Passos, seems to contradict these stereotypes. Frank was very much interested in what was going on in Europe, culturally, but also politically. He contributed regularly to the French review, Europe, addressing issues such as the cultural dependence of the US towards Europe, the need for America to create its own independent culture, the part intellectuals should play either in a capitalist or in a socialist society. His career testifies to the constant links that were developed by American and French intellectuals in the first part of the XXth century.
  • The U.S. Presidential Election of 1948: The Causes of Truman's ?Astonishing?? Victory - Bernard Lemelin p. 38-61 accès libre avec résumé
    Novembre 1998 a marqué aux États-Unis le 50e anniversaire de la fameuse élection présidentielle de 1948 par laquelle le démocrate Harry S. Truman, à la grande surprise des instituts de sondage et d'une myriade d'analystes politiques, l'emportait sur le candidat républicain Thomas E. Dewey. Plusieurs interprétations ont été avancées par les historiens pour expliquer ce résultat « inattendu » qui, au dire de certains, devait s'avérer lourd de conséquences. Le présent article, reposant en partie sur des sources d'époque, vise essentiellement à montrer, quelque 50 ans plus tard, que le « miracle de 1948 » n'apparaît nullement comme un accident et que la victoire démocrate trouve sa source dans une combinaison de facteurs. Parmi ces derniers figurent notamment l'habile stratégie de reconstitution de la coalition du New Deal déployée par Truman, la personnalité des deux principaux candidats en lice et le contexte international plutôt avantageux.
  • De l'Amérique comme volonté à l'Amérique comme réalité. L'exceptionnalisme pragmatique de l'«école du consensus» - Jean Kempf p. 61-71 accès libre avec résumé en anglais
    This paper aims at analyzing the return of exceptionalism in post-World War
    II historiography. Defining American history as an “experience” the historians of the so-called “consensus school”, better defined as “tradition school”, reinvented the notion of “American character” through a series of tropes, but most of all designed a “theory-free” conception of American history whose origins are to be found in pragmatism.
  • Les organisations noires modérées et le débat sur la guerre du Vietnam, 1961-1973 - Guy Clermont p. 72-86 accès libre avec résumé en anglais
    Focusing on the reactions to M. L. King's condemnation of the war in Vietnam, observers have often explained that the black community was deeply divided over Vietnam. In reality, there was very little disagreement over the issue of the war among Black Americans. The more moderate black leaders hesitated to express their views publicly because their organizations had neither the resources nor the inclination to get involved in a foreign policy issue, but, by the end of the sixties, they were able to join other black voices in a unanimous condemnation of the war.
  • La Cour suprême, les droits des femmes et l'égalité des sexes - Élisabeth Boulot p. 87-101 accès libre avec résumé en anglais
    In 1963, Congress voted The Equal Pay Act and in 1964 Title VII of The Civil Rights Act prohibited sex discrimination in the workplace. These laws provided women with essential protections, as they began to enter the workforce in large numbers. The Supreme Court and lower federal courts were instrumental in elaborating jurisprudence under these Acts, striking down gender-biased laws and upholding Affirmative Action plans. In 1978, Title VII was amended so as to protect pregnant women from discrimination policies and in 1986, the Court affirmed that sexual harassment was sex discrimination. Feminist writers and groups have often pondered over the ability of the judicial and legislative powers to advance the cause of women ; and taking stock, they offer contrasting views.
  • An Interview with Don DeLillo - Marc Chénetier, François Happe p. 102-111 accès libre
  • Comptes rendus : Essai de synthèse - p. 112-128 accès libre