Contenu du sommaire

Revue International Review of Public Policy Mir@bel
Numéro vol. 4, no 3, 2022
Texte intégral en ligne Accessible sur l'internet
  • Policy dismantling by capacity manipulation in a context of democratic backsliding: The bureaucracy in disarray in Bolsonaro's Brazil - Michelle Morais de Sá e Silva p. 272-292 accès libre avec résumé en anglais
    The policy dismantling framework was developed to account for processes involving the reduction or termination of existing policies, especially in the so-called advanced democracies. However, is the model proposed by policy dismantling scholars applicable to contexts of democratic backsliding such as Bolsonaro's Brazil? Do those contexts offer new elements to their analytical model? This article addresses those questions by analyzing the case of Brazil under President Jair Bolsonaro. Departing from research on policy dismantling recently conducted in Brazil and based on data collected with federal civil servants from 2019 to 2021, it will be argued that the mechanics of policy dismantling in Brazil involve not only the reduction and elimination of past policies but also the manipulation of policy capacities. At the individual policy capacity level, that process has involved mistrust and contempt for career civil servants, fear, and bureaucratic reshuffling, whereby bureaucrats were either removed from their original positions or resorted to exit in fear of persecution. The intimidation and disarrangement of the federal bureaucracy in Brazil appears to be an integral part of capacity manipulation, shedding light into what policy dismantling looks like in contexts of democratic backsliding.
  • The strategy of venue creation: Explaining health policy change in Greece - Maria Mavrikou, Nikolaos Zahariadis, Vassilis Karokis-Mavrikos p. 293-313 accès libre avec résumé en anglais
    How do policy entrepreneurs affect policy change in environments of institutional instability? The literature has predominantly explored policy entrepreneur strategizing in contexts with established institutional settings. In this paper, we argue that under conditions of institutional fluidity and a weak and politicized public administration, venue creation is the more frequently encountered and the more likely successful strategy. We define venue creation as the entrepreneurial strategy of setting-up institutional arrangements of finite duration, predominantly in the form of committees, delegated exclusively with designing reforms. We test our hypothesis in the Greek health policy sector. We explore two policy instances: the unsuccessful attempt at a public health reform in 1992 and the successful introduction of radical policy change for public health in 2003. We employ a process tracing approach spanning thirty years, processing primary data (elite interviews and documents) applying the Multiple Streams Framework (MSF). We find that under conditions of institutional fluidity and administrative weakness, policy entrepreneurs failed in their pursuit of change using venue shopping in 1992 but succeeded through venue creation in 2003, confirming our hypothesis. We conclude with insights for contingent policy entrepreneurship success, the MSF and patterns of policymaking in Greece.
  • Task-specific policy capacities: A comparative analysis of cash transfer programs in Latin America and the Caribbean during the pandemic - Guillermo M. Cejudo, Cynthia L. Michel, Pablo de los Cobos p. 314-339 accès libre avec résumé en anglais
    The COVID-19 pandemic required simultaneous, effective policy responses from numerous policy sectors. How have policy capacities enabled these responses? This paper analyzes social policy responses in Latin America and the Caribbean. We compare how policy capacities enabled 27 LAC governments to respond to the social effects of the pandemic with 122 cash transfer programs. The paper is based on a quantitative analysis of the number, type, and coverage of the programs implemented in each country, and on qualitative information about the process by which governments identified beneficiaries and delivered the transfers. We argue that policy capacities are not only context-specific but also task-specific. They are not generic assets valuable for addressing all kinds of policy issues at all moments of the policy process. By analyzing how policy capacities were used, built, and deployed during the pandemic, we show how different combinations of policy capacities enabled governments to reach their populations and provide assistance in response to this emergency.Our analysis extends current discussions about how policy capacities can be operationalized in specific contexts, shows the importance of looking at different configurations of capacities to understand policy actions, and offers a comparative account of social policy responses in the region.
  • Forum

    • Sorting Out Animal Policy: Ideas, Problems, and Solutions - Jerry Mitchell p. 340-355 accès libre avec résumé en anglais
      Animals are the focus of public policy around the world. Nonetheless, animal policy has not been established as a separate domain. This article describes the elements of animal policy to clarify its scope for public discourse and to give it a distinct research status. Three perspectives on animal policy are identified—anthropocentrism, animal welfare, and natural rights. Each of these ideas shapes the responses to the policy issues of animal cruelty, species disruptions, and the use of animals for public service. By ordering various problems and solutions within animal policy, an illustration is provided of how policy coherence can inform public discourse and governance.
    • A Legislation-Based Database for COVID-19 Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions - Alexandros Kyriakidis, Nikolaos Zahariadis, Ioannis Papadopoulos p. 356-376 accès libre avec résumé en anglais
      In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, governments around the world imposed a wide variety of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions (NPIs) in the form of restrictions of various aspects of social life, hoping to curb the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, measures such as restrictions on public gatherings, the closure of schools, or the mandatory use of masks, raised several concerns in terms of both their necessity and effectiveness. The Observatory of Government Restrictive Measures for the COVID-19 pandemic (GovRM-COVID19), which began in November 2020 within the Center for Research on Democracy and Law of the University of Macedonia (Greece), has developed a database tracking all legislative measures imposing restrictions across different countries. The use of legislation as the main source of information with a daily frequency, as well as consideration of sub-federal entities in non-unitary (federal, devolved, etc.) states, provide one of the most accurate accounts of such restrictions. The end result provides researchers with accurate data on how various governments around the world have restricted individual rights and freedoms as a result of, and during, the COVID-19 pandemic, offering an opportunity for comparative research across different countries and policy strategies.
  • Book Review