- Introduction - L'archivage numérique des savoirs : Perspectives européennes - Laurence Favier, Widad Mustafa El Hadi p. 9-14
- Un objet culturel digital : Le cas de la « restauration » de l'Ecce Homo de Borja - Nathalie Dietschy, Claire Clivaz, Dominique Vinck p. 15-40
In August 2012, the Centro de Estudios Borjanos of Borja, in Spain, published on his blog his “deep regrets” after having discovered what the centre calls an “unspeakable act”: a mural painting, situated in the Sanctuary of Mercy Church, has been restored in such a manner that the original subject – the Man of Sorrow – can hardly be recognized. The case is rapidly diffused by the international press and resulted in an unexpected dimension, sparking mockery and empathy. Almost all commentators in the press and on the Internet described the case as “botched restoration”. In contrast, the face of the Ecce Homo, transformed by this “restoration” gave rise to a variety of reinterpretations on the Internet. This article seeks to analyze the phenomenon of a collective re-appropriation made possible by the Web 2.0.1.
- Benefits of collaborative digitization projects in Europe : A dutch perspective - Trilce Navarrete p. 41-56
This article on digitization projects of heritage content at the European level tending to achieve remote connection and exchange of heritage information for the benefit of European citizens. Among these projects the authors focuses on libraries. Dutch libraries have formed and developed a network to exchange collections, using a digital catalogue since the 1960s, which has become part of a global online library. Europe has supported the development of an information network through funding and policy guidelines since the 1990s. Compared to the European counterparts, Dutch libraries rate higher in having a digitization strategy and in the percentage of collections being digitized. Access to digital collections continues to increase as the network continues to grow. Libraries benefit by being part of the network but ultimately it is users who reap the greatest benefits by accessing a broader collection base.
- The semiotic turn in digital archives and libraries - Peter Stockinger p. 57-82
This article focuses on how to process the symbolic or the meaning of (digital) media data which the author considers as a potential cognitive resource. In his opinion, this data is to “undergo” more or less significant qualitative transformations in order to become relevant for a user or community of users. These qualitative transformations are performed through series of concrete operations such as the constitution and classification of relevant corpora of digital records, the description and indexing of records, the processing of digital data (segmentation, tagging, linking, montage, …), the (cultural, linguistic) versioning (commenting, translating, …) of given source records or again the (re-)publishing of digital records. These operations constitute what can be called the semiotic processing of (digital) media objects, corpora of (digital) media objects or again entire archives and libraries. They demonstrate practically and theoretically the well-known “from data to meta-data” or the “from (simple) information to (relevant) knowledge” problem – problem that obviously determines the effective use and also the future of digital archival knowledge.
- Bibliothèques numériques et humanités digitales : La continuité d'une problématique sur l'organisation des connaissances en lettres et sciences humaines - Widad Mustafa El Hadi, Laurence Favier p. 83-102
The common core activity for digital humanities and memory institutions such as libraries, archives, and museums is digitizing the representations of cultural and historical documents, images, and artifacts. Most of these resources are delivered online to users. The emergence of Digital Libraries in the early 1990s was a turning point and a critical component of the world-wide shift to networked information. This article focuses on the fundamental role of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) for the Humanities with a special attention to libraries as one of the actors of Digital Humanities. The interplay between Digital Libraries and Digital Humanities is highlighted. Not only will they provide access to a host of source materials that humanists need in order to do their work, but Digital Libraries will also enable new forms of research that were difficult or impossible to undertake before.
- Walking through a library remotely : Why we need maps for collections and how KnoweScape can help us to make them? - Andrea Scharnhorst p. 103-128
There is no escape from the expansion of information, so that structuring and locating meaningful knowledge becomes ever more difficult. The question of how to order our knowledge is as old as the systematic acquisition, circulation, and storage of knowledge. Classification systems have been known since ancient times. On the Internet, one finds both classifications and taxonomies designed by information professionals and folksonomies based on social tagging. Nevertheless, a user navigating through large information spaces is still confronted with a text based search interface and a list of hits as outcome. There is still an obvious gap between a physical encounter with, for example, a library's collection and browsing its content through an on-line catalogue. This paper starts from the need of digital scholarship for effective knowledge inquiry, revisits traditional ways to support knowledge organization and information retrieval, and introduces into a research network, KnoweScape, where five different communities from all corners of the scientific landscape join forces in a quest for knowledge maps. The paper can be read as KnoweScape's manifesto. At the same time it is a reflection about what one has to take into account when representing structure and evolution of data, information and knowledge and designing instruments to help scholars and others to navigate across the continents and oceans of knowledge.
- Polish digital content in the european space - Zuzanna Wiorogórska, Jacek Włodarski p. 129-140
The paper discusses the role of digital libraries in Poland – the country that has one of the most complex history among European countries. Polish borders have changed several times. The historical events and displacements of country borders influenced on cultural heritage and (in the case of this paper's theme) on libraries' holdings of the country. Digitization has helped to organize the scattered collections and made them globally visible. The paper describes dLibra software – created in Poland and currently the most popular one used for digital libraries; two the most popular models of digital libraries creation: institutional and consortial; and the Polish Digital Libraries Federation (PDLF) that consists of 102 digital libraries covering over 1.9 million of publications. The PDLF's cooperation with Europeana is discussed as well as Polish National Digital Library – Polona.
- Ressources numériques dans l'espace européen : Impact sur l'évaluation de la recherche scientifique - Viviane Couzinet p. 141-160
La question de la place du numérique dans l'évaluation de la recherche est examinée à partir du corpus des listes de revues de l'Agence française de l'évaluation de la recherche et de l'enseignement supérieur. Considérée ici comme ressource pour le chercheur débutant qui peut découvrir les revues de référence de sa discipline et comme répertoire de titres pouvant potentiellement accueillir des travaux de chercheurs confirmés, la place accordée au support numérique reste faible. Cependant, ceci ne semble pas être le fait de restrictions imposées par l'Agence mais le fait du petit nombre de revues encore exclusivement disponibles sous ce format.L'accès au texte intégral via les portails interroge les pratiques de référencement. Ces dernières, malgré les consignes apportées par les sites eux-mêmes restent aléatoires, et les difficultés déjà rencontrées par les auteurs pour les formats imprimés paraissent s'accentuer. Ceci brouille le rôle dévolu à la revue dans l'évaluation et invite à revenir aux fondamentaux de la médiation documentaire.
The question of the place of e-publications on research evaluation is examined from the corpus of the journals lists provided by the French Evaluation Agency for Research and Higher Education (AERES). The author assumes that these lists are considered as a resource for the novice researcher who can discover the reference journals of his discipline and as directory of titles which can potentially welcome confirmed researchers production. To understand the situation one should mention the fact that, the place granted for electronic journals remains insignificant. However this does not seem to be the consequences of the restrictions defined and imposed by the Evaluation Agency but rather the impact of the small number of still exclusively available e-journals. The access to full text via portals challenges referencing practices. In spite of the instructions given by the sites they remain themselves random and the difficulties already met by the authors for the printed publications appear to become more manifest. This blurs the role assigned to journals in the evaluation process and invites to go back to the fundamentals of the documentary mediation.