Contenu du sommaire : COLOMBIE 2017

Revue Amerika Mir@bel
Numéro no 18, 2018
Titre du numéro COLOMBIE 2017
Texte intégral en ligne Accessible sur l'internet
  • Éditorial - Virginia de la Cruz Lichet, Néstor Ponce accès libre
  • Thématique

    • Mémoire, violences
    • Museo, lenguaje, memoria - Néstor Ponce accès libre avec résumé en anglais
      A Museum dedicated to memory is a linguistic space inscribed in time. It has a duty to remember the events that marked the history of a territory ; and, at the same time, distance itself from trite promotional speech in order to invoke reflection. To think about the past is to anticipate the future, to write the future. The end of the armed conflict in Colombia, with the signing of the peace treaty in November 2016, entails a public reflection with a participatory principle of all the actors in the conflict. The Museum of Memory in Medellín deserves to be studied in a perspective of building synthesis and offering alternate proposals for peace.
    • L'Archive comme lieu de mémoire : l'assassinat de Jorge Eliécer Gaitán le 9 avril 19481 et la vision particulière de Ricardo Restrepo dans l'essai filmique Cesó la horrible noche (2014) - Virginia de la Cruz Lichet accès libre avec résumé avec résumé en anglais
      Le 9 avril 1948, le leader libéral Jorge Eliécer Gaitán fût assassiné brutalement dans les rues de Bogotá. Comme conséquence, une révolution spontanée se déclencha dans la ville durant quatre jours, un moment historique connu comme le Bogotazo. Sur les traces de ce fait historique qui marquera le début de la période de la violence en Colombie, cette réflexion reconstruit les évènements à partir de l'image iconique du leader juste après les coups de feu. Sur les traces d'une violence démesurée, l'essai documentaire de Ricardo Restrepo, Cesó la horrible noche (2014) permet de mettre en image ce que les colombiens ont vécu durant ces quatre jours, mais surtout ce qu'ils ont vu en tant que témoins. Les différents témoignages recueillis par Arturo Alape dans son ouvrage El Bogotazo. Memorias del olvido (2016) et les images filmées en 16mm par Roberto Restrepo, grand-père de Ricardo Restrepo, durant ces journées sont les documents collectés aujourd'hui permettant de reconstituer les faits et de réécrire cette histoire. L'analyse du film donne une autre vision de ce fait, avec une version personnelle du cinéaste, plus esthétique mais en même temps plus visionnaire, permettant de se questionner sur le futur de son pays.
      On April 9th, 1948, the liberal leader Jorge Eliécer Gaitán should be roughly assassinated on the streets of Bogotá. Further to it, a spontaneous revolution in the city for four days, historical instant known by ElBogotazo should start. On the traces of this historical fact that marked the beginning of the period of violence in Colombia, this reflexion rebuilds events from the iconic picture of the leader just after gunshots. On the traces of an immoderate violence, the documentary essay of Ricardo Restrepo, Cesó la horrible noche (2014) allows to put in picture what the Colombians have lived for these four days, but especially what they saw as witnesses. The different stories gathered by Arturo Alape in his bookEl Bogotazo. Memorias del olvido (2016) and movie on 16mm film by Roberto Restrepo, Ricardo Restrepo's grandfather, filmed for these days, are documents collected today allowing to reconstruct facts and to rewrite this history. The analysis of the film gives another vision of this historical fact, with a personal version of the film-maker, more aesthetic but at the same time visionary, allowing to question on the future of its country.
    • El relato de guerra: Cómo el arte transmite la memoria del conflicto en Colombia - Johanna Carvajal González accès libre avec résumé en anglais
      The strength of art is translated into works of art, with a message that travels through the conscious, the unconscious, the experiences of each one of us, to speak of something universal, human, essential. The role of art in Colombia's current conjuncture period called post-conflict –or better said, the post-peace agreement– is to remind us of who we are, as emotional, rational and social beings. In the same way, art becomes a channel through which intimate narratives are transformed into a collective voice that denounces situations society refuses to live again. Through the analysis of the theater play Mujeres en la guerra (2001) directed by Fernando Montes, from the photographic work El David (2006) by Miguel Ángel Rojas and from the visual work of Juan Manuel Echavarría entitled Silencios (2010), the conflict narratives will be the starting point of the work and at the same time, will compose the work itself. Narratives that are conjugated with the aesthetic discourse, which reveals the humanity behind the conflict, discourse that constitutes possibly symbolic reparation of the victims. Art is present to remember that it is possible to vindicate the abuses suffered during this violent period, which has lasted more than fifty years.
    • David y Cuerpo gramatical : imágenes de la violencia y políticas de la mirada en dos casos del arte contemporáneo en Colombia - Daniel García accès libre avec résumé en anglais
      This article reflects on two works of contemporary art in Colombia (David by Miguel Ángel Rojas and Cuerpo gramatical, by José Alejandro Restrepo), with the purpose of explaining the reasons why these artists alluded to the Christian and classical iconography to address the problem of modern and contemporary violence in the country. The central hypothesis of the text is that, in both cases, the strategy of these works consists in proposing a politics of the gaze that serves to elaborate a critique of the processes of production, circulation and reception of the representations of public violence in the media massive information. Given the mechanisms of isolation and prescription that are usually imposed on this type of representation, the works of these artists allow them to be integrated into the field of a long-term visual culture, in addition to addressing the problem of their meaning with different criteria.
    • El conflicto colombiano entre animación e hiperrealismo mágico : Desterrada de Diego Guerra. - Françoise Bouvet accès libre avec résumé en anglais
      In March 2014, Diego Guerra presented in the International Film Festival of Cartagena de Indias his animated film Desterrada. With this first full-length movie, the cartoonist yearns to relate what means being young in Bogotá, and at the meantime, try to paint the conflict that corrode Colombia since the 70s. Reflection of the country History or fiction, hyper-realistic but also dystopic, the film affects because of his peculiar treatment of violence, conducing the spectator from a recalling process to a denunciation of the conflict. Clearly influenced by American comics and movies, but also deeply rooted in Columbian arts, we will show that Desterrada develops an original aesthetic project and we will question the term of “magic hyper-realism” that emerged from the audience after the premiere.
    • La memoria herida : entre los límites de la rememoración personal y la conciencia histórica de la violencia en Los ejércitos - Bibian Paola Ferández Luna accès libre avec résumé en anglais
      This article purports to analyze the novel Los ejércitos (2006) by Colombian author Evelio Rosero Diago. The interest to analyze this literary work responds to the form in which the novel explores new points of enunciation, getting away from the cliche ways in which violence is referenced in Colombia: data, statistics, and terrifying anecdotes that produce an ephemeral indignation. On the contrary, Rosero investigates new forms of language combined with uncommon narration of daily realities which provides us with the necessary distancing from the pathological familiarization with violence to which we have grown accustomed. This novel arrives in the field of Colombian literature as a distanced examination of the violent novel and its narrative tools. Consequently, the purpose of this article is to analyze the system of characters as well as time and space to elucidate the manner in which they evoke memory, revelations, and, most of all, the way in which narration of memory affects the perception of the present and expectations for the future. In this way, the reader is able to understand the link between the past, present, and future as different types of time that together constitute historical consciousness. Colombia.
    • Représentations, identités
      • Re-construction de l'identité colombienne et  ré-écriture de l'Histoire, du mythe et des mémoires noires dans Chango el Gran Putas de Manuel Zapata Olivella - Fatima Zohra Mohamed accès libre avec résumé avec résumé en anglais
        L'article proposé a pour objet d'interroger les mémoires noires auxquelles fait référence Manuel Zapata Olivella et de poser le problème de l'écriture et de la réécriture de l'Histoire, du mythe et des mémoires à travers la fiction de Chango el Gran Putas. Quelle vision ont les colombiens de la traite et de l'esclavage ? N'est-elle pas le résultat d'une rétention d'informations des historiens qui ont retranscrit subjectivement l'Histoire d'un pays ? Cette vision erronée mais canonique que peuvent en effet avoir les colombiens sur l'Histoire de leur pays ne crée-t-elle pas une certaine spécificité dans la réception de l'Histoire de la traite et qui aujourd'hui pose le problème d'une identité culturelle colombienne fragmentée. L'écriture de Manuel Zapata Olivella confirme ces présupposés et dénonce cette spécificité en proposant une version sublimée de l'Histoire du Noir, déjà présente dans l'inconscient collectif et secrétée par la tradition orale et les mythes. Son roman, Chango el Gran Putas publié en 1983, se compose de fragments relatant quatre siècles d'histoire depuis la traversée transatlantique des esclaves noirs jusqu'aux premières indépendances en Amérique. Dans cet article, nous verrons comment il propose une lecture postcoloniale du continent latino-américain et une réécriture poético-esthétique des mémoires Noires afin de réparer un passé historique violenté, qui permettra la « reconstruction » identitaire culturelle colombienne.
        The article suggested has the aim of questioning the black memories to which Manuel Zapata Olivella references and to look at the issue of the writing and the rewriting of the History, the myth and the memories through the fiction of Chango el Gran Putas. Which vision have the Colombians of the traffiking and slavery ? Isn't it the result of an information retention by the historians who subjectively retranscribed the History of a country ? This mistaken but canonical vision that the Colombians can indeed have on the History of their country does not create a certain specificity on the history reception of the traffiking and which today poses the problem of a fragmented Colombian cultural identity. The writing of Manuel Zapata Olivella confirms these presupposed and denounces this specificity by proposing a sublimated version on the History of the Black, already present in the collective unconscious and secreted by the oral tradition and myths. His novel, Chango el Gran Putas published in 1983, is composed of fragments reporting four centuries of history since the transatlantic crossing of the black slaves until the first independences in America. In this article, we will see how he proposes a post-colonial reading of the Latin-American continent and a poetico-esthetic rewriting of the Black memories in order to repair a harmed historical past, allowing the “reconstruction” of the cultural Colombian identity.
    • De la ontología del género femenino y las estrategias de la mascara-de en la obra de Marvel Moreno : conflictos de identidad y violencia de la representación en Colombia - Natalia Vélez L. accès libre avec résumé en anglais
      The present dissertation inquires on the being of the feminine gender, evidenced in the literary discourse of the Colombian author Marvel Moreno. I turn to Lacan, in his reflection on the significant practices exposed in the symbolism of language, articulated by the “law of the father” and the differences of sex and gender according to their cultural dimension. This ontology investigates the "being" of the Phallus, sense consented by “the law”, according to which sexual difference is unintelligible. The "being" or "having" the Phallus, announces dialectically impossible positions. Moreno works this conception in the representations of the masculinized language of binary disjunction between "being" and "having", mediated by the power of the dominant sex and the repression (masquera-de) constituting of the feminine subject. I argue that these discursive representations of the dialectic "to be"-"to have" frame the paradox of the development of Colombian society in the 1990s : the consecration of fundamental rights in the 1991 Constitution, accompanied by the resurgence of political violence and increased rates of sociocultural conflicts ; the violence of representation and the hierarchical incorporation of the "I". This representational violence precedes and accompanies the identitarian processes of "extreme" subcultures, needing manifestation through the armed conflict.
    • El Dorado, l'Eldorado dans l'imaginaire des artistes de théâtre colombien, serait-il un trésor mal investi ? (Réflexions sur un aperçu historiographique) - Olga Lucia Cobo accès libre avec résumé avec résumé en anglais
      Les rapports entre le théâtre et les peuples amérindiens en Colombie sont indissociables de l'évolution politique et sociale du pays. Suivant le cours des événements à toutes les époques, les arts scéniques colombiens semblent énoncer l'histoire à voix haute. Cette communication présente un aperçu de l'histoire du théâtre en Colombie du XIVe jusqu'au début du XXIe siècle, afin d'analyser les transformations du regard que les arts scéniques du pays portent sur les peuples amérindiennes et la place que cet art, éminemment occidental, accorde à leurs traditions.Dans cette relation interculturelle la scène théâtrale colombienne a toujours été un lieu d'échanges et de rencontres mais elle a aussi prêté ses lumières à la manipulation et à l'effacement de l'Autre.Les éléments réunis permettront d'ouvrir une réflexion sur le défi que notre époque et ses événements présentent aux artistes de théâtre colombien, notamment dans la construction de la paix sociale sur les bases de véritables dialogues inter-culturaux.
      This The relationships between performing arts and indigenous people in Colombia are indivisible from the country's political and social evolution. Following the course of events through the time, the Colombian performing arts seem to tell the history out-loud. This paper presents an overview of the history of theatre in Colombia from the fourteenth to the beginning of the twenty-first century, in order to analyse the transformations in the view that the country's performing arts have on Amerindian people, and to know the place that this art, eminently Western, accords to their traditions.In this intercultural relationship the Colombian theatrical scène has always been a place for exchanges and encounters but it has also shed its lights to manipulation and deletion of the other. The gathered elements will open a reflection on the challenge that our time and its events present to the Colombian theatre artists, in particular concerning the construction of the social peace on the bases of true inter-cultural dialogues.
    • El Dorado o la búsqueda de los migrantes colombianos en España - Victoria Bazurto accès libre avec résumé en anglais
      The Muisca legend of El Dorado fed the imaginary from a lot of conquistadors and has also motivated hundredth of expeditions. It's a legend that has been broadly interpreted and integrated into the language related to the migratory contemporary universe in general but also into that one related to the Colombian migration. Based on this, the major goal of this paper is to present the way an imaginary around Spain as a new El Dorado for the Colombian migrants is built. Colombians represents in 2015 the second Latin-American community in that country just after the Ecuadorians. We will address the analysis based on the Colombians newspapers El Tiempo and El Espectador and the Spanish newspapers El País and El Mundo all over the period between 1990 and 2005.
    • Música en el tiempo y el silencio : narración del conflicto armado a través de la música popular - Diana Paola Castro Roa accès libre avec résumé en anglais
      After more than 50 years marked by conflicts and violence spread over the Colombian territory, war had direct repercussions in Colombia's countryside, but it also affected the inhabiting ways in urban centers. Inside cultural charges, which are the consequences of lifestyles affected by conflictual circumstances, Colombian popular music played a role as heritage and collective identity, as well as a reflection for this specific status. This paper discusses a selection of musical pieces, developed from 1945 to 1970, related with the internal war. This text compares and relates the artistic and musical creations with the history of armed conflict. Although violence in Colombia is a common matter in every region, colombian popular music features different perspectives and speeches of those who have lived in conflictive contexts, as in music as well as in its lyrics. Analysis of information recognises the following references : the book Contribución al entendimiento del conflicto armado en Colombia and reports of armed conflict developed by the Centro Nacional de Memoria Histórica, plus the concept of ethnomusicology as developed following Catherine Héau Lambert's theories (2005) regarding relationships and its representations through power in popular music. It is also taken as a reference about the work from Ana María Ochoa (2003) with the theory of musical hybridation in Colombia.
  • Mélanges

    • Comment raconter l'horreur ? Métaphore et déplacement dans les chroniques de guerre d'Enrique Gómez Carrillo - Sergio Coto-Rivel accès libre avec résumé avec résumé en anglais
      L'écrivain guatémaltèque Enrique Gómez Carrillo (1873-1921), diplomate et voyageur, a laissé une œuvre très importante en tant que « reporter de guerre ». Ses chroniques publiées à partir de 1914, et très rapidement recueillies sous forme de livre dès 1915, se chargent non seulement d'informer le public, mais surtout de développer une importante réflexion sur l'homme, la destruction des grandes œuvres culturelles et les vices de la guerre. Nous analysons dans cet article la construction du discours moderniste comme une possibilité de raconter les horreurs de la guerre et les témoignages de ceux qui l'ont vécue. Nous nous concentrons sur les stratégies de déplacement métaphorique développées par l'auteur pour comprendre et expliquer le contexte belliqueux et la destruction. L'utilisation de la métaphore riche en formes et couleurs dans les chroniques parisiennes de Gómez Carrillo prend ici un tournant significatif dans le but de faire face aux particularités de la « guerre moderne ».
      The Guatemalan writer Enrique Gómez Carrillo (1873-1921), a diplomat and a traveller, left an imposant body of work as a « war correspondent ». His chronicles published from 1914 onwards and quickly collected as books from 1915 not only informed the public but more significantly developed an important reflection on Man, on the destruction of great cultural works and on war prejudices. In this article we will analyse the construction of the modernist speech as a possibility to recount the horrors of war and the testimonies of those who lived through it. We will concentrate on the strategies of metaphorical displacement developed by the author to understand and explain the context of war and destruction. The use of metaphors, rich in forms and colours, in Gómez Carrillo's Parisian chronicles is now at a turning point so as to face up to the singularities of the « modern war ».
    • Kitsch et mélodrame dans le film mexicain No se aceptan devoluciones de Eugenio Derbez - Sophie Dufays accès libre avec résumé avec résumé en anglais
      Cet article compare et analyse l'une par rapport à l'autre deux catégories esthétiques souvent perçues négativement : le mélodrame et le kitsch, suivant trois points de vue superposés. Après une introduction d'ordre théorique, il situe brièvement l'importance de ces catégories dans le cadre culturel et cinématographique mexicain, puis il étudie leur présence dans une production récente qui a obtenu un immense succès commercial : No se aceptan devoluciones (Ni repris, ni échangé, Eugenio Derbez, 2013). L'analyse montre que le kitsch non seulement caractérise ce film comme produit culturel consommable, mais intervient à différents niveaux de sa trame et de sa mise en scène. L'article clarifie en particulier les liens que le film permet d'instaurer entre mélodrame et kitsch et interprète sa « sensibilité » mélo-kitsch – clé de son succès – à la lumière de son contexte (cinématographique et plus largement culturel) et de sa réception.
      This article compares and analyzes two aesthetic categories that are often negatively perceived : melodrama and kitsch, from three points of view. After a theoretical introduction, the essay contextualizes these categories within the Mexican cultural framework ; then it considers their presence in a recent and hugely successful production : No se aceptan devoluciones (Instructions Not Included, Eugenio Derbez, 2013). The analysis shows that the notion of kitsch not only characterizes the movie as a consumable cultural product, but is involved at several levels in its plot and in its mise-en-scène. The article clarifies the links between melodrama and kitsch in the movie and interprets its melo-kitsch “sensibility” – key to its success – in the light of its (cinematic and cultural) context and of its reception.
    • Defendiendo la periferia. Texas y Yucatán. Independencias triunfantes y frustradas - Rubén Torres Martínez accès libre avec résumé en anglais
      In the nineteenth century two Mexican's territories, Texas and Yucatan, seek their independence from Mexico. The cleavage's theory allows us to obtained elements that would explain this phenomenon, as well as because in one case the independence is successful while for another is frustrated. We watched to cultural aspects to understand the difficulty of a young nation like Mexico to create a "Mexican" identity.
    • Drama del reconocimiento, vidas precarias y filiaciones en 2666, de Roberto Bolaño. Otra vuelta de tuerca del imaginario melodramático latinoamericano (primera parte) - María A. Semilla Durán accès libre avec résumé en anglais
      The paper proposes to analyze the novel 2666 by Roberto Bolaño from the notion of recognition, reinterpreted by Jesús Martín Barbero and Hermann Herlinghaus in the framework of their work on melodramatic imagination. An essential component of the melodramatic dramaturgy, the recognition acquires here a much broader significance, be it used in a literal sense or in the metaphorical sense of the term, allowing thus to tackle the issue of the social constructions of subjectivity. Besides we establish the link between this search of recognition, which reiterates itself on multiple discursive levels and registers, and the concept of precarious life developed, among others, by Judith Butler. Given its length, this article is divided into two halve. In the first, we follow the plot of the figures of recognition and un-knowledge in the first two books of Bolaño's 2666 and demonstrate how these figures are organized around different instances of the writing process and the progressive emptying of literary signs. In the first book, the reflection revolves around part around the vicissitudes of criticism and critics, their relations with literary creation on the one hand and the world by another, all of which refer to transitivity both to the author and the reader. The second book is about staging the readers and ritualistic reading. The book is portrayed as an object and a symbol which is the resonance box in which all the plots ensure the persistence of life and voices, including those of the memory.
  • Opinion / Varia

  • Compte-rendus