Contenu du sommaire : Coup d'état en Argentine et Guerre des Malouines
|Numéro||no 15, 2016|
|Titre du numéro||Coup d'état en Argentine et Guerre des Malouines|
|Texte intégral en ligne||Accessible sur l'internet|
- Editorial - Mirian Pino, Néstor Ponce, Comité de rédaction d'Amerika
Dossier "Coup d'état en Argentine et Guerre des Malouines"
- De 1976 a 1982 : Alusiones y elusiones de una genealogía - María A. Semilla Durán In this work and through a series of texts going from Los Pichiciegos by Fogwill (1982) ; to Las Islas by Carlos Gamerro (1998) ; Una puta mierda by Patricio Pron (2007) ; Trasfondo by Patricia Ratto (2012) ; Sobrevivientes by Fernando Monicelli (2012) ; Antebrazo by Ernesto Seman (2016), and El poder de la mente by Julian Lopez (2016) we intend to sutdy the different modalities of alluding to and/or avoid the link between the dictatorship and the Malvinas'war. In order to do so we will emphasize the literary methods chosen to articulate such strategies, their effects and the meanings they produce. This will allow us to identify a series of discourse evolutions which represent different degrees of implicit and explicit. Such degrees oscillate between reference, allusion and elusion and tend to be in line with an analogical paradigma that uses the framework of the facts as sort of a subtext which relates to the narration in an oblique way, paradigma that requires from the reader a shared knowledge which is not provided by the text. Two main and contradictory lines explain as well as delimit such techniques: historization or de-historization, and each one of them proposes politico-ideological interpretations of the events, obsesively adjusted by polemical writings.
- De 1976 a 1982 : Alusiones y elusiones de una genealogía - María A. Semilla Durán
Coup d'État : militaires, résistants et artistes
- Le coup avant le Coup : les luttes des enseignants pendant l'Operativo Independencia à Tucumán, 1975-1976 - Antonio Ramos Ramírez Avant le commencement définitif de la dictature argentine auto-dénommée Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, les forces armées installant à Tucumán le laboratoire où pouvoir expérimenter le système répressif qui s'étendit dans tout le pays à partir de mars 1976. Le décret de l'Operativo Independencia mena aux militaires à « anéantir la subversion » dans la province, y compris la guérilla rurale de l'ERP et d'autres groupes armés, mais s'adressant avant tout, au propos de court-circuiter les possibles éléments de résistance articulés dans les organisations syndicales. Les enseignants, une fraction de travailleurs traditionnellement peu mobilisés, se trouvaient immergés dans un processus de prolétarisation dont sa manifestation à l'échelle régionale de Tucumán représenta l'Agremiación Tucumana de Educadores Provinciales (ATEP), porte-parole des enseignants de plus en plus politisés et combatifs. Le but de cet article est d'analyser les actions de contestation que les enseignants développèrent aux cours de ces treize mois de conflit et les résultats qu'ils parvinrent à réaliser.Before the beginning of the Argentinean dictatorship self-named as the Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, the military forces installed in Tucumán the laboratory where they were able to test the repressive system meant to be enlarged to the whole country from mars 1976. The Operativo Independencia decree lead the army to « destroy the subversion » in the province, included the ERP guerrilla among other armed groups, but more specifically addressed to the purpose of short-circuit the possible elements of resistance articulated in labor unions. Teachers, traditionally a not very mobilized group of workers, were sunk in a proletarianization process and its local representation was the Agremiación Tucumana de Educadores Provinciales (ATEP), spokespersons for increasingly politicized and combative teachers. The aim of this article is to analyze the protests actions that teachers developed during these thirteen months of conflict and the results they reached to accomplish.
- O jogo da escrita em Lo imborrable de Juan José Saer : da ditadura à poética - Raquel Alves Mota The years of dictatorship in Argentina is a central issue in Lo imborrable (1993) - theme developed through the aesthetic discussion of the book “La brisa en el trigo”, authored by the character Walter Bueno. Lo imborrable focuses on Tomatis – a character that undergoes much of the « Saerian saga » – in the period in which he came out of depression and alcoholism, evils that imprisoned him after the death of his mother and the disappearance of a revolutionary young girl, « la Tacuara ». When “La brisa en el trigo” was released, Tomatis defied the military government – which boosted the spread of this book – by publishing a fierce critique of the realism of Walter Bueno or his lack of skillin both driving the plot and carrying out the aesthetics of the work. This poetic discussion uncovers the lucidity of Saer as he defends writing as an “imborrable” weapon for resistance.
- El desplazamiento en Dos veces junio o la construcción de un lenguaje crítico de la memoria - Celia Duperron This paper offers an analytical reading of implicit speech in the novel Dos veces junio by Argentinian writer Martin Kohan using the image of displacement. On the one hand, we analyze displacement as an enunciative phenomenon and the interpretative confusion it leads to. The focalization on a character supporting a repressive dictatorial state in a fragmented narrative relying on implicit speech generates a new language of memory. On the other, we focus on narrative displacement as a form of implicit speech. This narrative strategy provides rich interpretative possibilities by enacting a significant transfer of feelings toward the wrong object.
- Los pequeños engranajes de la maquinaria del horror : Martín Kohan - Teresa García Díaz I am interested in highlighting the nuances in which Martín Kohan constructs petty, respectful of hierarchical, controlled, subdued and apparently secondary characters with a grey disposition, and makes them the protagonists of the novels Dos veces junio and Cuentas pendientes. Also, I reflect on the ways in which these secondary characters were key pieces of the political machinery that sustained the dictatorship and led to the theft of children, torture, and murder in the midst of human evil and misery. Finally, I emphasize the fact that the point of view moves away from the victims by focusing on the links, a resource which, in addition to allowing the narrative to be fluid in the face of such brutality, moves the reader closer to the political machinery than to the victims, without diminishing the transcendence of the events.
- Los quiebres del recuerdo: entre democracia y dictadura en la Argentina - Máximo Hernán Mena How do we speak about a city which denies its own past? The writing of El día que mataron a Bussi (2000), the second novel of Ernesto Wilde (1950-2011), proposes a pendulous tour between history, testimony and fiction. The events refuse to be narrated. Is it possible to explain how Antonio Domingo Bussi was elected to be Tucuman's governor during a democracy, considering that he was accused of acts of genocide and then condemned for the human rights's violations committed before and during the military dictatorship of the "Proceso de Reorganización Nacional" ? How is it possible to recognize the limits among dictatorship and democracy if violence and torture already were implemented in Tucuman, during the “Operativo Independencia” that began in February 1975, before the last Coup d'état of 24th March 1976 ? Therefore, this work will propose an interdisciplinary study that contemplates the coincidences and visible contrasts of fictional and historical discourses.
- Memoria y testimonio : la ética del cuerpo en Historia del llanto de Alan Pauls1 - Sandra Beatriz Navarrete Barría This article analyzes Historia del llanto (2007) by the Argentine Alan Pauls as a fictional narrative that builds a new point of view regarding memory and the subject of testimony. Our hypothesis proposes that this novel explore the ethical dimension of the remembering, from the configuration of an underlining corporeality that sketches an obligatory trace for the constitution of memory : the encounter with the ‘other'. In establishing its theoretical base, this article draws upon Mijaíl Bajtín and his contributions regarding the relations between otherness, ethics and corporeality.
- Marcas y contaminaciones de la neurosis en La astucia de la razón de José Pablo Feinmann - Patricio Subirol La astucia de la razón of José Pablo Feinmann presents Pablo Epstein's life who develops a neurosis during the military coup in March 1976, Argentina. Among the pathological writing, the narration shows the marks of trauma and explores the tensions between experience and the ways of telling it. Moreover, it exposes a disintegrated subject that needs to replace himself at each step. In this movement, it changes the enunciation's position and suspends any conciliatory closing. Reading this text in a self-referential key, Epstein writing a novel about himself, suggests an intersection between the testimony of a neurotic person and other text written in third person that produces the objectification of his life for making readable the traumatic experience. This fictional game allows others contaminations of voices, chronologies and bodies. It generates modifications of the sense and emphasizes the diffuse boundaries of trauma. Looking these marks and contaminations permits researching an individual memory crossed by the obsessive repetition and the irreducible distance between writing and past's sequels.
- Cuerpos ausentes y horror - Alicia Montes This article proposes to analyse the multiple interpretations, for the book of poems Desapariencia no engaña by the Argentine writer Néstor Ponce, concerning the topic of the missing persons during the terrorism of State in Argentina (1976-1983). The poems present the horror of the dictatorship in a new way. These texts will be analysed taking into account two main ideas: the concept of installation, typical of the conceptual contemporary art and that of synecdoche. The bodies of those missing are made present via poetic language. These voices break the silence by speaking about passion, memories, and everything that is connected to life. Hereby an antithesis is established between absence and presence, confinement and freedom, ignorance and memory. A heterotopia is constituted. Ponce travels to hell, as Ulises, to give a voice to “the hooded ones”, the tortured ones, the massacred ones, the missing ones and with these tales he constructs a fragmentary memorial on the unique historical experience of these taken lives.
- Un hijo del limo: el lugar de la poesía y la militancia en la obra de Miguel Ángel Bustos - Mirian Pino One of them aspects central in the academy argentina of the new millennium, result of the coup of State civic military ecclesial of 1976, was the pop and the persistence of studies both disciplinary as interdisciplinary on the relationship between political and poetry. Boom that articulates with the abundance of scientific production on memory and later between this, the human rights and literature. Names like Juan Gelman, Alejandra Pizarnik, Néstor Perlongher, Francisco Urondo, Roberto Santoro began to be objects of study of criticism. With regard to the production of Miguel Ángel Bustos, contemporary to the formation of the poets of the generation of the 60, has not been subject to academics, except for the case of Ana Porrúa while I've been able to locate notes as Susana Cella, Julián Axat and Daniel Freidemberg, among others. Miguel Ángel Bustos was arrested on 30 May 1976, and their remains identified in 2014. Journalist, teacher College, militant of Partido Revolucionario de los Trabajadores, and a prolific poet. Its production both poetic as journalism has been gathered and posted by his son Emiliano Bustos. In this address, I will stop in the constitution of the field cultural, in the interregnum 60-70, for then deploy my hypothesis of reading referred to his work as a discontinuity with respect to the poetry in boga in the interregnum 60-70 of the century XX. Finally, I am your text El Himalaya o la moral de los pájaros (1970).
- Memorias de la represión: infancias devastadas y autoficción - José García-Romeu Avec l'arrivée dans le champ littéraire et cinématographique de la génération de HIJOS, un nouveau paradigme de création centré sur la mémoire d'enfance a émergé dans les récits argentins qui se penchent sur l'époque de la dictature. Aujourd'hui, le corpus représenté par ces œuvres atteint une proportion suffisante pour constituer un genre propre, avec ses conventions, ses normes et ses modèles. Après avoir déterminé les problèmes esthétiques et éthiques posés par ce genre, nous étudierons Una misma noche (2012) de Leopoldo Brizuela, roman particulièrement représentatif du corpus.The appearance of the HIJOS generation in the literary and cinematic fields has generated a new, creative paradigm centered on memories of childhood in Argentine tales about dictatorship. Today this corpus amounts to a sufficient number of works to constitute a proper genre endowed with specific conventions, norms and models. This paper will seek to determine the aesthetic and ethical problems relevant to the genre, before focusing on a particularly representative work - Leopoldo Brizuela's Una misma noche (2012).
- Le sauvetage et la transmission de la mémoire dans le cinéma argentin - Kostoula Kaloudi Depuis le début des années 2000, on assiste dans le cinéma d'Argentine, à une tendance à revenir sur les événements de la dictature de Videla : la résistance, la mobilisation des jeunes au sein de groupements de gauche, la vie dans la clandestinité, le terrorisme d'État, les enlèvements, les assassinats et les disparitions de citoyens. Ces films traduisent, à travers une histoire personnelle qui devient en même temps collective, la sensation du souvenir, la connaissance du passé, le besoin d'identité et de la mémoire. Si, au cours des années soixante-dix, le cinéma engagé participa à la lutte pour un monde meilleur, apportant son appui à la résistance et à la réaction contre l'inégalité sociale et l'injustice et faisant de la caméra une « arme », le cinéma argentin qui se réfère à cette période, semble se mobiliser en faveur d'un combat contre l'amnésie et le déni du passé et de l'histoire.Since the early 2000's, we observe in Argentine cinema a tendency to return to the events of the Videla dictatorship : resistance and mobilisation of the young people in groups of the left, life underground, state terrorism, kidnappings, assassinations and the forced dissapearance of citizens. These films reflect personal narratives that are also collective, the sensation of memory, knowledge of the past and the need for identity. If during the 70's, cinema participated in the struggle for a better world, providing support against social injustice and inequality and turning the movie camera into a « weapon », then Argentinean cinema that refers to this period can be read as one that is mobilized against amnesia and the denial of the past.
- Un mapa de singularidades en las imágenes y memorias del cine de los hijos de desaparecidos - Natalia Weiss In Argentina, the military dictatorship tore the country's history apart and led to a genealogy of detonated lives. The missing people, in their absence, evidence a lack of sense in our history. The memory work developed by screenwriting allows us to bring it up to date and understand its problems from the perspective of the present. For this reason the analysis of different cinematographic accounts offers such benefit, as it reveals a reflection on the writing of history via personal stories such as the children of the protagonists of those events. Based on the cinema as a research vehicle on behalf of this second generation, the images become a form of subjective exploration of the past that is somehow a blurred and inaccurate map, and paradoxically more precise as it threatens recent history as it writes it.
- Las revistas literarias del exilio latinoamericano en Suecia (1980-1992) - Débora Rottenberg About thirty different magazines were published in Sweden by the Latin-American exiles, among them seven literary magazines. In this article I will present the first issue of the first published literary magazine, Hoy y aquí, appeared in May 1980. The analysis focuses in the matter of exile. I come to the conclusion that exile is represented as an oscillation between two poles, a pole of nostalgia and a pole of curiosity in the new. A fundamental function of this first issue is to encourage the readers to use language as a tool in the situation of exile, something about what Hoy y aquí becomes an example of.
- El poder muestra los dientes: una lectura simbólica de La balada de Johnny Sosa (1987), de Mario Delgado Apara - María Virginia Saint Bonnet In this paper the representation of the bodie is analyzed, more precisely the symbolism of the teeth and their articulation of power relations, in the nouvelle entitled La balada de Johnny Sosa (1987) written by the Uruguayan author, Mario Delgado Aparaín. On both banks of Río de La Plata, a temporary court occures in Uruguay and Argentina and acts as a hinge for literary productions of the Southern Cone: dictatorship/postdictatorship. This is a review of the Master´s thesis where the author organized two chapters –Exiles and Bodies- whose purpose is to read and stress the never simple or direct relationships between cultures and their productions. We can postulate there is a connection with the violence and power representation focused on the figure of authoritarian government and the presence of teeth as metonymic element of the oppressed body, and exile as one of the possible outputs of terror. We can think about the uses of language –or silence like another option- as a discursive strategy that promotes powers and resistances. We can also think about the tension between memory/omission which is selective and organize the rootlessness representations that history has been legitimized.
- Taller de Muñecos y Memoria : materialidad y afectividad en un ejercicio contemporáneo de construcción de las memorias de la dictadura de Chile1 - Yael Zaliasnik Through the analysis of a workshop of Puppets and Memory taken place in 2015 in two locations related to the dictatorsip in Chile, the articles discusses the affects and effects of the experience. It focuses on different elements of theatricality, like “scenarios”, “scripts”, symbols, “actors” and “props”. The article shows how the workshop is able to propel and stage the shared empathy, through the use of different strategies; it is an heteropathic memory that is also emblematic. Likewise, this excercise of micro-memory has implications and reflects different aspects associated to the construction of memories of that moment in the history of Chile and Latin America.
- Le coup avant le Coup : les luttes des enseignants pendant l'Operativo Independencia à Tucumán, 1975-1976 - Antonio Ramos Ramírez
Malouines : la manipulation des génocides et la réponse citoyenne
- Cuerpos muertos, violencia y sacrificio : diferentes sentidos en el marco de la Guerra de Malvinas - Laura Marina Panizo This piece offers initial finding of an ongoing project that investigates the way in which relatives and veterans of the Malvinas War give meaning to the practices carried out on the bodies of those killed in the war considering questions such as physical violence, type of death, burial, exhumation, identification). From that vantage, I intend to work on the relationships built between the living and the dead and the different interpretations given to violence and sacrifice. I argue that they are a type of key-stone that offers understanding regarding the meanings given to the dead bodies.
- "Jamás pensé que los argentinos serían tan locos1". La planificación de la recuperación de las islas Malvinas en 1982 frente al legad - Mario Ranalletti In this work, from official sources, journalistic investigations and war veteran's testimonies, I studied the decision-making process that led to the Malvinas war. I propose explain this process itself by the recent history of the Argentine Armed Forces. I emphasize the impact that had the logics, practices, training and education acquired in the period before (1955-1976) the launch of State terrorism in Argentina (1976-1983). This work does not try to do a complete reconstruction of this war, which key facts still are protected under military secret; neither, I study here the memory the Malvinas war.
- Malvinas : identidades y territorialidades en series no ficcionales recientes - Carolina Casali From a semiotic perspective dwells on the theory of social discourses given by Eliseo Verón, we conceive Malvinas as an object not closed but rather open, dynamic and tense. In this regard, the National Institute of Cinema and Visual Arts has funded in recent years various audiovisual productions that have assumed the representation of the Malvinas Question through the genre of nonfiction. More than 30 years of the war-as traumatic event-, through this corpus we analyze how the problem is constructed, what territorialities and identities are configured.
- Osvaldo Soriano : La crónica del tiempo presente - Néstor Ponce Osvaldo Soriano's novel A sus plantas rendido un león was published in 1986 and is representative of the author's poetics. Soriano often plays with irony and humor, but also refers to the political topics of his time (such as Peronism, the military dictatorship, and the Malvinas War, which is the specific focus of the novel in question) with a critical and satirical distance that poses questions to his readers. Soriano's language is tight, concentrated. It creates a situation and develops it, narrating its horror while having us face the conflicts of the everyday.
- Cuerpos muertos, violencia y sacrificio : diferentes sentidos en el marco de la Guerra de Malvinas - Laura Marina Panizo
Coup d'état en Argentine et Guerre des Malouines
- Pesimismo histórico y pensamiento apocalíptico en la narrativa de Roberto Bolaño - Malva Marina Vásquez Against the apocalyptic vision of optimistic stamp of political utopias and religious in which the disaster social and / or natural opened the advent of a new world, in the narrative of Bolaño we are witnessing a kind of "post-modern" Apocalypse (Kumar). That is, of historical pessimism, because its narrative through the experience of the absurd shows a crisis of historicity that reveals the barbarism of the contemporary world. This vision of the author is homologous to criticism of Adorno to the false-optimistic metaphysics that made it possible to Auschiwtz.
- Modos del testimonio. Sobre Carlos Liscano, Fernando Butazzoni y la escritura de la experiencia carcelaria - Gabriela Sosa San Martín Carlos Liscano's approach to his testimonial experience with torture and political prison –I refer fundamentally to El furgón de los locos– inaugurated –in his work– several texts confronted with the aesthetic parameters supported by him before, and showed his particular interest in writing about himself. This testimonial approach meant the author desire to be detached from other modalities of this genre developed in Uruguay after the dictatorship. Considering the aesthetical alternatives that Liscano worked with in political prison topics in Uruguayan literature, we can distinguish El tigre y la nieve of Fernando Butazzoni. Butazzoni's project proposed to make a revision of the heroic models of resistance and to approach the testimonial to the novel genre.
- Migrantes del sudoeste pampeano - Esther Iglesias Lesagra From an interview collected in situ in 1966, in this work, the achievements and projects of a migrant family of Spanish origin, from the region of Navarre, which evolved in Argentina in the last decade of the nineteenth century, is evoked. It was installed in the southwest of Pampa, in an area of salty soil with climates alternating between extreme aridity and in recent decades with overflowing rainfall that temporarily hinder any agricultural or animal production. The oral history serves as a testimony of the presence of these people who forged the first fruits for an agro-export agriculture in units of exploitation or 'chacras' whose surfaces oscillated between 200 and 400 hectares. Most of these chacareros began as land tenants that the great estancias of the zone were renting them to realize their crops. Many of them, as in the case exemplified here, later became proprietors: the nuclear family had favoured them with a number of sons who jointly developed the family business. The third generation of these families, mostly, migrate from rural areas.
- El Candombe en Uruguay : un patrimonio resignificado y expandido - Andrea Añón Monteserín Candombe is a form of cultural expression considered by the Afro-Uruguayan community as their intangible cultural heritage inherited from their African ancestors, who were brought to Uruguay in slavery. The importance of this artistic expression to the history and culture of the Uruguayan nation lead to its declaration as national cultural heritage as well as inclusion by UNESCO on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. In recent decades the art and practice of candombe has expanded and acquired new dimensions, leading to modification, appropriation, and valorization. This article explores the different transformations experienced by candombe due to being widely conceived as a cultural product of consumption. It also examines the expansion of candombe into new socio-cultural spaces, as well as the increasing participation of protagonists from outside the Afro-Uruguayan community.
Coup d'état en Argentine et Guerre des Malouines
- Domingos de cine. Memorias de rayos que iluminaron la noche - Ana María Mohaded The civil-military dictatorship that devastated Argentina between 1976 and 1983 was held on genocidal policies that involved murder, imprisonment, persecution, deportation and censorship of any person or manifestation of dissent. In the more than 600 clandestine detention centers and hundreds of semi-legal prisons, / as prisoners / political / as lived terrifying regimes. Prison Unit No. 1 of Córdoba was one of the most celebrated by isolation, beatings and murder of / as and prisoners / as. Under these conditions, the resistance assumed different languages and formats. Art, with its inalienable status rebellion, camouflaged among the locks, memory is food, wrapped with loving solidarity, and strengthened the desire libertarian, opened the curtains of the cells making up a work each day.
- La compulsión a la repetición y el presente como metástasis - Alicia Plante
- Afrancesamiento, insularidad y auto metatextualidad en Plan de evasión de Adolfo Bioy Casares - Éric Courthès In this article, we shall try to demostrate that Adolfo Bioy Casares' prose perfect framework , especially in Plan de evasión, follows somes mains themes. First, France's theme in its onomastics games and the places evocated, particularly, in addition to French Guiana, France's western and the Charente's archipelago. After, that it follows other theme more obvious even, island's theme, with the three Salvation island in front of Cayenne and the three of Charente, that communicate between themselves. At last, we shall notice too that text's theme, with its special autometatextuality, conveys semiotically the insularity.